DATE

COMPUTER HISTORY

INTERNET HISTORY

BUSINESS HISTORY

WORLD EVENTS

(for a little perspective)

3000 BC

The abacus is invented in Babylonia

   

The Tower of Babel is built

Native Americans invent popcorn

80 AD

The Antikythera Device, a bronze mechanical lunar month calculator, is constructed in Greece

   

The wedding cake is invented in Rome. Instead of being eaten, it is thrown at the bride to insure fertility.

1517

     

Coffee, without which little progress would have been made in the computer sciences, is introduced in Europe

1600

     

Doughnuts are invented in Holland. They don't invent the hole until 1850

1620

     

Pilgrims establish a colony at Plymouth Rock.

1622

William Oughtred invents the slide rule. This first one was circular.

   

James I is King of England, gets his very own version of the Bible.

Descartes thinks, therefore he is.

1623

Wilhelm Schickard designs the first known mechanical calculator, the "Calculating Clock" to multiply large numbers.

   

Bernini completes his sculpture "David"

1633

     

Galileo is tried by the Inquisition for his belief in a heliocentric solar system. The Pope doesn't admit Galileo was right until 1989

1642

Blaise Pascal invents an adding machine which he calls the Pascaline. It could perform addition and subtraction, but it was too expensive to be practical and only Pascal could keep it working

 

Income and property tax introduced in England

Rembrandt paints The Night Watch

Galileo dies

Isaac Newton born

1666

Samuel Morland builds a mechanical calculator that will add and subtract

   

The Great Fire of London

Charles II introduces waistcoats, heralding the development of the three-piece suit.

1670

     

British clockmaker William Clement invents the minute hand for clocks.

1674

Gottfried Leibnez, the man to blame for the invention of calculus, uses a stepped cylindrical gear to build his "Stepped Reckoner" which will both add and multiply

   

French explorers Marquette and Joliet reach the headwaters of the Mississippi River

1679

Leibniz introduces binary mathematics

     

1752

     

Benjamin Franklin conducts his experiments with kites and lightning

1761

     

First electric musical instrument, the electric harpsichord, is invented

The sandwich is invented

1772

     

Joseph Priestly discovers Nitrous Oxide

1774

Phillip-Malthus Hahn builds and sells a small number of calculating machines which are accurate to 12 digits

     

1776

     

America declares its independence from Britain last year. Big hassle follows.

1777

The third Earl of Stanhope invents a multiplying calculator

     

1803-4

Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents an automated loom which uses punched cards to reproduce complex patterns.

   

Napoleon is proclaimed emperor of France and everything else.

Johann Stauss born

US makes Louisiana Purchase

Mayonnaise is introduced in America

1811

     

Luddites destroy machinery that they believe threatens their jobs

The tin can is invented in England. The can opener is not invented until 1865. Go figure.

1820

The first mass-produced calculating machine, Thomas de Colmar's Arithmometer, is marketed and continues in use for many years.

   

 

1822

Charles Babbage begins work on the Difference Engine

   

London's Sunday Times is founded

Schubert fails to finish his symphony

The accordian is invented

1829

The first typewriter is patented by William Austin Burt. It's slow and clumsy, but it's the first writing machine.

   

The first reliable locomotive is built. It is capable of speeds up to 29 mph.

Graham Crackers are invented by Rev. Sylvester Graham

1831

The telegraph is invented

     

1832

Babbage completes a portion of his Difference Engine

     

1834

Babbage begins work on the Analytical Engine

   

Abraham Lincoln first enters politics

1837

     

Victoria is crowned Queen of England.

Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre invents the daguerrotype

1838

 

Samuel Morse demonstrates the principle of the telegraph

   

1840

Lord Byron's daughter, Ada, Countess of Lovelace, suggests to Babbage that he use the binary system. She writes programs for his analytical engine, becoming the world's first programmer

   

Rodin, Renoir and Monet are born

1843

Ada translates Luigi Menabrea's theories of the analytical engine and adds her own commentary

     

1844

 

Morse sends the first telegraphic message from Washington to Baltimore.

 

First use of Nitrous Oxide in dentistry

1848

     

California gold rush begins.

1853

Scheutz invents the first printing calculator

   

Franklin Pierce inaugurated as 14th president of the US

Samuel Colt introduces the first revolver

The hypodermic syringe is used for the first time

Potato chips are invented

1850's

George Boole develops Boolean Logic which will one day become the basis for computer logic.

     

1856

 

The first Atlantic cable is laid between the US and Europe. It only works for a few days before breaking, but by 1866 a successful cable is laid and will carry international communications for over 100 years

 

Sigmund Freud is born

Sir Henry Bessemer

introduces his converter for making steel

1858

     

Cocaine is first isolated

1861

 

A trans-continental telegraph line connects the Atlantic and Pacific coasts

 

The Martini is invented in San Francisco

Also in San Francisco, Levi Strauss begins selling denim jeans.

The Civil War begins

1862

     

Richard Gatling invents the machine gun

1865

     

Bad night at Ford's Theater: "Aside from that, Mrs. Lincoln, how did you ejnoy the play?

1876

 

Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone

   

1882

William S. Burroughs quits his job as a bank clerk and sets out to invent a reliable adding machine.

   

The US railroad boom begins. Over 70,000 miles of track are laid in a ten year period.

1884

     

Nicola Tesla invents the electric aternator.

Rayon, the first synthetic fabric, is invented

1886

     

Coca Cola is invented

1890

Dr. Herman Hollerith introduces the first electro-mechanical punched-card data processing machine. It is used to compile information from the 1890 US census.

   

Rubber gloves are used for the first time in surgery

The first baseball cards are issued

Idaho and Wyoming become states

First electrical power station in England

The button-down collar is invented in Britain to keep polo players collars from flapping

1892

Burroughs produces the first adding machine with a printer

   

Edvard Munch paints "The Scream"

CrackerJack is invented

1894

     

The first Hershey Bar is sold

1895

     

The first pizzaria is opened - New York City

1899

Magnetic recording is invented.

 

NEC Corporation incorporates in Japan as Nippon Electric Company Ltd.

Heroin is first used for medical purposes

1900

     

The Hamburger is invented

Hot Dogs are invented

The paperclip is invented

1901

Hollerith starts his own company, the Tabulating Machine Company, to market his data processing machines.

Marconi sends the first transatlantic wireless message

 

President McKinley assassinated.

1903

     

Wright Brothers achieve the first heavier-than-air flight

1904

     

The Ice cream cone is invented in St.Louis

1906

William DeForest invents the vacuum tube

 

Xerox corporation is founded. It is first known as the Haloid Co. (becomes Xerox in 1961)

The great San Francisco earthquake shakes things up.

1908

     

Henry Ford introduces the Model T

1909

     

The first synthetic plastic, Bakelite, is invented by Leo H. Baekeland

1911

   

Hollerith's company merges with two other companies to become CTR, the Calculating, Tabulating and Recording Company. Why should we care? Because in 1924...(go on, look ahead)

Marcel Duchamp paints "Nude Descending a Staircase"

1914

     

World War I begins for vague reasons

1915

     

Albert Einstein publishes his Theory of Relativity

1917

Aberdeen Proving Grounds begins computing ballistics tables

   

Czar Nicholas abdicates and is murdered by commie pinko revolutionaries

U.S. Rubber introduces Keds

1919

Two American physicists, Eccles and Jordan, invent the flip-flop circuit which will be necessary for high-speed electronic calculating.

     

1920

     

Karel Capek coins the word "robot" in his play RUR (Rossum's Universal Robots)

In the U.S., women finally get the right to vote.

Charlie "Bird" Parker is born

1924

   

Thomas J. Watson, President of CTR, changes its name to IBM

The Popsicle is invented

Kleenex is invented

1926

     

First public demonstration of television

1928

IBM adopts the 80 column punched card - used for the next 50 years

Teletypewriters and teleprinters come into limited use in Britain, Germany and the US

 

Motorola incorporates as the Golvin Manufacturing Corporation

 

The first scheduled television broadcasts

Amelia Earhart is the first woman to fly across the Atlantic

The first all-talking motion picture is released

Disney releases the first Mickey Mouse cartoon.

1929

     

The stock market crashes and the Great Depression begins

Valentine's Day Massacre in Chicago

1930

Vannevar Bush builds the differential analyzer at M.I.T.

 

Picture telegraphy service begins between Britain and Germany

 

Grant Wood paints "American Gothic"

1933

     

Spam is introduced to an unsuspecting America

In retaliation, Rene LaCoste launches shirts with little alligators on the pockets

1934

The Moore School differential analyzer is completed

   

John Dillinger is shot and killed by FBI

Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow are shot and killed by Texas Rangers

Pretty Boy Floyd is shot and killed by federal agents.

Adolph Hitler instigates production of the Volkswagen

Charles Lindberg's son is kidnapped

1935

IBM introduces the electric typewriter

     

1936

Konrad Zuse applies for a patent on his mechanical memory

Alan Turing publishes On Computable Numbers which lays a theoretical foundation for computer principles

   

The Johnstown flood

King George V of England is succeeded by his son, Edward VIII

1937

George Stibitz builds his model K, which demonstrates the feasibility of mechanizing binary math

   

San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge opens

Amelia Earhart is lost somewhere over the Pacific

Polyurethane is invented in Germany

Oldsmobile introduces the first automatic transmission

Picasso paints "Guernica"

1938

Konrad Zuse completes his Z1 calculating machine

 

William Hewlett and David Packard start Hewlett-Packard in a garage in Palo Alto, CA, setting a tradition which was later followed by two guys named Steve who built a computer and called it an Apple.

Ballpoint pen invented

1939

John Atanasoff begins work on his ABC computer

Howard Aiken begins work on the Harvard Mark 1 with funding from IBM

   

Nylon stockings first appear

Mr. Hitler stirs up trouble in Europe

1940

Zuse introduces his Z1, the first programmable calculating machine to use the binary system. It is used to solve complex engineering equations

Bell Labs' George Stibitz and Samuel Williams complete the Complex Number Computer, later known as the Bell Labs Model 1.

Stibittz later demonstrates the Model 1 at Dartmouth College with a terminal in New Hampshire and the Model 1 in New York

   

First successful helicopter flight

FDR re-elected for a third term

War breaks out in Europe

M&Ms are invented

1941

Zuse completes his Z3, the first program-controlled electromechanical digital computer.

In Britain, Alan Turing, M.H.A. Newman and Tommy Flowers complete work on the Colossus, the first all-electronic calculating machine. It is used during WWII to break German codes.

   

The US declares war on Germany and Italy

The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, and the US declares war on Japan

Robert Arnold is born

1942

John Mauchly and J.Presper Eckert propose a digital electronic version of Vannevar Bush's differential analyzer.

   

487 people die in a fire at the Coconut Grove nightclub in Boston

The US Government begins to move Japanese-Americans into concentration camps

1943

Howard Aiken and staff at IBM's Endicott Labs complete the Harvard Mark 1, an automatic digital sequence-controlled computer.

The US government funds Mauchly and Eckert and work begins on the ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator)

In Britain, the Colossus computer is completed and set to work breaking German codes

Project Whirlwind, an analog flight simulator, is begun at M.I.T.

   

Italy surrenders to allied forces and declares war on Germany

1944

The first tests of ENIAC. The US government extends funding to cover research on the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Computer), a stored program computer.

The Harvard Mark I, designed and built by Howard Aiken and his team of engineers, becomes operational.

     

1945

The ENIAC is up and running.

Zuse completes his Z4

The first computer "bug" is found in the Harvard Mark I by Grace Murray Hopper. It is a moth which got into one of the relays and caused it to fail.

Vannevar Bush's prophetic essay, As We May Think, is published in the Atlantic Monthly.

   

Germany surrenders

The U.S. drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan.

Japan surrenders

Tupperware, the first commercial product made of polyetheylene, is introduced

FDR dies; Truman becomes President of the US

1946

The public gets its first glimpse of the ENIAC in Philadelphia on Valentines Day

Herman (CPL Irwin?) Goldstine invents flowcharts

 

Eckert and Mauchly leave Moore school and start the Electronic Control Company

 

1947

The transistor is invented by William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs

Howard Aiken and his team finish work on the Harvard Mark II

The ENIAC is moved to Aberdeen Proving Grounds

Maurice V. Wilkes begins work on the EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer) at Cambridge University

AT & T inaugurates the first microwave relay station for long distance telephone calls. This eliminates the need for long-distance trunk lines.

ACM founded

Hewlett Packard is founded

Sightings of flying saucers first reported in the US

Jackie Robinson is the first black player to be signed to a major league team

A US aircraft first breaks the sound barrier

Edwin Land invents the Polaroid camera

Epoxy glue is invented

Leo Fender introduces the Telecaster electric guitar

1948

The Manchester Mark 1 is operational

IBM unveils the SSEC, the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator

Shockley, Bardeen and Bratain patent the transistor

 

ECC becomes the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation

They receive a contract from the US Census Bureau to develop the UNIVAC computer

Harry S. Truman elected president

The LP record is invented

The first McDonald's opens

1949

The EDSAC is completed

Eckert & Mauchly's company completes the BINAC computer for Northrup Aviation

An Wang develops magnetic core memory

The Whirlwind computer, the first real-time computer, is developed by Jay Forrester and his team at MIT

J.Lyons and Company, a British catering firm develops the first business computer, the LEO (Lyons Electronic Office), as a result of research which they funded at Cambridge

Norbert Wiener coins the term Cybernetics for the science of communication and control in animals and machines.

 

Israel admitted to the UN

Arthur Miller wins Pulitzer prize for "Death of a Salesman"

Chang Kai-Shek resigns as president of China and goes to Formosa which becomes Taiwan

Silly Putty is introduced

1950

Turing completes the ACE, considered by many to be the first programmable digital computer, at Britain's National Physics Laboratory

Turing publishes his Touring Test for determining machine intelligence

Assembly language developed

Other computers of 1950:

UNIVAC 1101

ADVIAC

IBM 607

SEAC (National Bureau of Standards)

 

The Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation is sold to Remington-Rand

Ray Bradbury publishes "The Martian Chronicles"

The Korean War begins

1951

William Shockley invents the junction transistor. Reverse-engineered alien technology from Roswell? Inquiring minds want to know.

The first UNIVAC 1 computer, developed under the leadership of Grace Murray Hopper, is delivered to the US Census Bureau

Jay Forrester files a patent for matrix core memory.

The Whirlwind computer begins operations at M.I.T

IEEE Computer Society founded

A British catering firm, Lyons & Company, develops the first business computer, the Lyons Electronic Office (LEO) , based on research which they funded at Cambridge University. David Caminer becomes the world's first corporate systems analyst.

Other Computers of 1951:

Fairchild Computer

General Electric 100 ERMA

NBS SWAC (Sealed With A Kiss?)

Burroughs Lab Calculator

   

John Huston's "African Queen" is released

Electric power first produced from atomic energy

1952

Jay Forester develops magnetic memory at M.I.T.

The EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) is completed at Moore School by Mauchly, Eckert and Von Neumann

Grace Murray Hopper develops A-O, the first program compiler

A Univac I computer accurately predicts the outcome of the US presidential election, bringing computers to the attention of the general public,

The IAN computer begins operation at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princton Univ.

A core memory module is added to the ENIAC

Other Computers of 1952:

ORDVAC

EDVAC

ILLIAC (Univ. of Illinois)

And of course, someone had to come up with the MANIAC

Harvard Mark IV

Elcom 100

IAS

National 102

IBM 701

 

A complaint is filed against IBM, alleging monopolistic practices in its computer business, in violation of the Sherman Act.

Elizabeth II becomes Queen of England

1953

Sperry Rand buys the patents to the UNIVAC and begins to market the UNIVAC 1103

The IBM 650, aka the Magnetic Drum Calculator, is introduced. It is the first mass-produced computer

Computers of 1953:

MIT Whirlwind II

NCR 107

IBM 604

IBM 701

UNIVAC 1102

RAYDAK

ALWAC II

OARAC

MINIAC

And the minimally named FLAC

   

Eisenhower inaugurated

The Korean War ends

Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier in the Bell X-1A

1954

Gordon Teal develops transistors based on silicon

Texas Instruments begins commercial production of transistors

Other computers of `1954:

The acronyms start to get a little silly...

JOHNNIAC (Rand)

DYSEAC

ORDFIAC

LEPRECHAUN (Bell Labs)

Mellon Institute Digital Computer

Circle

Electro Data Datatron

MODAC 404

WISC

TIM II

   

The Nautalus, the first nuclear-powered submarine

The US Supreme Court rules that segregation violates the 14th Amendment

TV Dinners are introduced

1955

The ENIAC computer is decommissioned and shut down.

Other computers of 1955:

Monorobot III

IBM 702

RCA BIZMAC

NORC

Technitral 180

PENNSTAC

MIDAC

ALWAC III E

Elcom 125

The first optical fibers are invented

William Shockley founds Shockley Semiconductor in Palo Alto, California

Atomically generated power first used (Schnectady, NY)

Rock & Roll! Elvis Presley releases Heartbreak Hotel

In Monstgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to sit at the back of the bus.

The first electronic music synthesizer is built

Velcro is developed

Playboy magazine is launched

1956

IBM builds the first hard drive. It contains fifty 24 inch disks, has a capacity of 5 MB and costs over US$1,000,000

The Nobel Prize in physics is awarded to John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley for their work on the transistor.

The first transistorized computer, the TX-O (Transistorized Experimental computer), is completed at M.I.T.

 

U.S. District Court makes final judgement on the complaint against IBM's monopolistic practices. A "consent decree" is signed by IBM, which limits how they conduct business with regard to "electronic data processing machines".

Thomas J. Watson, the founder of IBM dies

Grace Kelly marries Prince Ranier

First battery-powered wristwatches

Elvis Presley records Hound Dog

1957

IBM introduces RAMAC, a memory storage device based on rotating disks. It is the first hard disk storage.

The FORTRAN programmming language is developed by John Backus, an engineer at IBM.

The Atlas Guidance Computer, one of the first transistor computers, is used to control the launch of the Atlas missile.

The Musasino-1 computer is developed by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Company. It is based on the principles of parametric excitation developed by Eiji Goto in 1954. A command in Basic programming will later be named after him.

In response to Russia's successful launching of Sputnik, President Eisenhower calls for the formation of ARPA, the Advanced Research Projects Agency, which brings together some of America's most brilliant scientists and engineers. In only 18 months, America lalunches its own satellite, the first of many which will establish a world-wide communications network

Digital Equipment Corporation is founded by Kenneth Olsen

A group of eight engineers, including Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce, leave Shockley Semiconductor to form Fairchild Semiconductors.

Control Data is incorporated

The desegregation crisis in Little Rock, Arkansas

Stereo recording is introduced

Sony introduces the transistor radio

1958

Commercial transistor computers make their first appearance

The UNIVAC Solid State 80 and the Philco S-2000 are introduced, beginning the second generation of electronic computers

The ALGOL 58 programing language is developed

Jack StClair Kilby and Robert Noyce of Texas Instruments develop the first integrated circuit (IC) or chip, which is a collection of miniature transistors

 

Bell Labs develops the modem which enables binary data to be transmitted over telephone lines

 

Robert Arnold graduates from high school

NASA is established

Stereophonic recordings are commercially available

The Chipmunk Song and The Flying Purple People Eater are big hits

The European Common Market comes into being

The Boeing 707, the first commercial jet airliner, is introduced

The first Pizza Hut opens

1959

This year marks the beginning of the second generation of computers - those which use transistors rather than tubes

IBM announces the IBM 1401 computer

RCA introduces the 501 computer. It is supplied with the new COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language) programming language

The Harvard Mark 1 is shut down

Both Fairchild Semiconductor and Texas Instruments announce the independent development of the integrated circuit (IC)

Fairchild Semiconductor files a patent for the planar process for manufacturing transistors which makes commercial production of transistors possible.

Robert Noyce of Fairchild builds an integrated circuit based on silicon, with metal conductors, transistors and resistors

John McCarthy develops the programming language LISP

Japan's NEC Corporation introduces their first commercial transistor computer, the NEAC 2201

Xerox introduces the first commercial copy machine

General Electric introduces the GE ERMA, the first machine to process checks encoded with magnetic ink characters

   

Sony introduces the first transistorized television set

1960

IBM introduces the IBM 360, developed by Gene Amdahl

Ken Olsen, founder of DEC, introduces the PDP-1, the first computer with a keyboard and a monitor. It is priced at US$120,000

DEC introduces the PDP-8, the first mass produced minicomputer at the unheard-of low price of $20.0000

The Algol 60 programming language is developed

 

Remington Rand introduces the Livermore Advanced Research Computer (LARC) for use in scientific research. It uses 60,000 transistors

Paul Baran of Rand develops the packet-switching principle for data communication

IBM develops the first mass-production facility for transistors

The U.S. Congress passes the CIvil RIghts Act.

The first felt-tip pen is marketed

The laser is invented

JFK is elected president

1961

Fairchild releases the first commercially produced integrated circuit.

MIT's Fernando Corbato develops a way for computer users to share computer time

The first robotic manufacturing device is patented by Georg C. Devol. It is used to automate manufacturing TV tubes.

IBM unveils the 7030 computer which is 30 times faster than its predecessor, the 704. The race for speed and power is on.

   

Yuri Gagarin becomes the first human in outer space

 

1962

Ivan Sutherland creates a graphics system called Sketchpad.

Teletype introduces its Model 33 keyboard and punched-tape terminal which is used for input-output on early microcomputers

IBM introduces magnetic disk storage for computers

The first video game is developed by grad student Steve Russell at MIT

The Atlas, the world's most powerful computer, is launched in Britain.

Joseph Weizenbaum develops Eliza, a computer program that simulates the responses of a psychiatrist.

Dr. J.C.R. Licklider is appointed to lead ARPA and given the mission to develop military uses of computer technology

Paul Baran of RAND publishes "On Distributed Communications Networks" - the basic conept of packet-switching networks, a system that prevents any single outage point from halting communication

The Telstar communications satellite is launched and relays the first transatlantic television broadcast

H.Ross Perot starts Electronic Data Systems which becomes the world's largest computer service bureau.

Diet sodas are introduced

John Glenn is the first American to orbit the earth

1963

Douglas Engelbart receives a patent on the mouse pointing device for computers

Lofti Zadeh begins work on fuzzy logic at UC Berkeley

 

Digital Equipment sells its first minicomputer, to Atomic Energy of Canada

President Kennedy is assasinated.

First demonstration of a home video recorder

Push-button telephones are introduced

The Beatles have their first US hit: She Loves You

Valentina V. Tereshkova becomes the first woman in outer space

1964

Douglas Englebart develops a working mouse.

Gordon Moore suggests that integrated circuits would double in complexity every year. This later becomes known as Moore's Law.

The programming language, Basic (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), is developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz at Dartmouth College

IBM's SABRE airline reservation system is implemented

Control Data Corporation introduces the first supercomputer, the CDC6600, developed by Seymour Cray.

First fully automated, computer-controlled factory is inaugurated by Sara Lee

AT&T demonstrates the picturephone at the New York Worlds Fair

 

Boeing introduces the 727

Robert Moog introduces the Moog Synthesizer

1965

DEC introduces the PDP-8, the first mini-computer. It is priced at the then-unheard of bargain price of US$18,500

   

First manned spaceflight in the Gemini spacecraft

1966

Steven Gray founds the Amateur Computer Society, and begins publishing the ACS Newsletter. This is considered by some to be the birthdate of personal computing

IBM introduces the first disk storage system, the IBM RAMAC 305. It holds 5 MB of data on 50 2-foot wide platters.

   

Hallie Arnold born

1967

The change from magnetic core memory to semiconductor memory begins

The LOGO programming language is developed

IBM develops the first floppy disk

Jack Kilby, John Merryman and James VanTassel develop the first four-function hand-held calculator

A plan for a packet-switching network is presented at the ACM Symposium on Operating Principles

 

Niko Coucouvanis born

1968

Douglas Engelbart, of the Stanford Research Institute, demonstrates his system of keyboard, keypad, mouse, and windows at the Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco

 

Andy Grove, Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce start a little company called Intel

IBM first starts selling its software separately, beginning the software industry

Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore leave Fairchild and found Intel Corporation

Ed Roberts and Forest Mims found Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS)

Martin Luther King is assasinated

Robert Kennedy is assassinated

2001: A Space Odyssey is released

1969

Dennis Ritchie and Kenneth Thompson begin work on the UNIX operating system at Bell Labs

Intel announces a 1 KB RAM chip, which has a significantly larger capacity than any previously produced memory chip.

William Gates and Paul Allen, calling themselves the "Lakeside Programming Group" sign an agreement with Computer Center Corporation to report bugs in PDP-10 software, in exchange for computer time.

At Xerox's research facility in Webster, New York, Gary Starkweather demonstrates the use of a laser beam with the xerography process to create a laser printer

Researchers at UCLA proposed to ARPA that they organize a Network Measurement Center to explore the possibilities of networked computers.

ARPA-Net, the forerunner of the Internet, is established by the US Department of Defence.

A primitive network was established between UCLA (Xerox DSS7), Stanford Research Institute (NIC-SDS940), UC Santa Barbara (IBM 360/75), and the University of Utah (DEC PDP-10) in Salt Lake City. By the end of the summer they were ready to see if something typed on a computer at UCLA would appear on the computer at SRI. They began by typing "login". Did it work? Well, they got as far a "g" before the system crashed, but it was a start.

Advanced Micro Devices Incorporated is founded by Jerry Sanders and seven others from Fairchild

Microsystems International is incorporated to manufacture microchips. The company was formerly known as the Advanced Devices Centre of Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company (Canada).

Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin become the first humans to walk on the Moon

Charlie Manson and friends get a little wild.

Woodstock

1970

Bell Labs introduces UNIX

The first Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) is installed

Gilbert Hyatt files the first basic patent on the microprocessor

The floppy disk is introduced.

The daisywheel printer is introduced

ALOHAnet is developed by Norman Abrahamson at the University of Hawaii

ARPANET hosts start using Network Control Protocol (NCP).

Xerox opens the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)

Boeing introduces the 747

1971

The first mass-produced microprocessor, the Intel 4004 processor, developed by Ted Hoff, is introduced. It can process four bits of data simultaneously at a rate 60,000 instructions per second and has its own arithmetic logic unit

Nolan Bushnell invents the videogame "Pong". It is wildly popular and makes him, in addition to a lot of money, the father of videogames,

The Kenback Corporation releases the Kenback-1, the first microcomputer kit, designed by John V. Blankenbaker.

Intel creates the 1103 chip, the first generally available DRAM memory chip

Nicklaus Wirth develops PASCAL, a structured programming language

The programming language FORTH is developed

Texas Instruments produces the first pocket calculator

ARPANET has expanded to15 nodes (23 hosts): UCLA, SRI, UCSB, U of Utah, BBN, MIT, RAND, SDC, Harvard, Lincoln Lab, Stanford, UIU(C), CWRU, CMU, NASA/Ames

To encourage further development of the ARPANET, Larry Roberts asks Bob Kahn of BBN to put together a public demonstration.

   

1972

The Intel 8008 processor is introduced

The C programming language is developed at Bell Labs by Dennis Ritchie. It is called C because the previous version was called B. Real creative guys, those programmers...

Hand-held calculators become popular, rendering the slide rule instantly obsolete.

Xerox Parc's Learning Research Group develops the Smalltalk programming language.

Alain Colmerauer develops the Prolog language at University of Marseilles

DEC introduces the PDP 11/45

Wang introduces a word processing system

Liquid-crystal displays are introduced

Bob Kahn demonstrates ARPANET in the basement the Washington (DC) Hilton Hotel by networking 40 computers at universities and research centers around the country. The technicians from AT&T don't think it would work, let alone be of interest to anyone other than a handful of computer scientists and techno-dweebs, but event was a great success and triggered more intensive development of the idea of hooking a bunch of computers together.

The InterNetworking Working Group (INWG) is created to address the need for establishing standardized, agreed upon protocols. The group is chaired by Internet pioneer Vinton Cerf.

Ray Tomlinson of BBN invents an email program to send messages across a distributed network. Ray is also noted in Internet history as the man who decided to use the @ symbol in email addresses.

Flush with the success of "Pong", Nolan Bushnell founds Atart. He is later responsible for founding Chuck E. Cheese pizza.

 

1973

Steve Wozniak begins to build "Blue Boxes", tone generators to make free long-distance calls, and sells them in his dorm at Berkeley

Xerox Parc develops an experimental computer called Alto that uses Douglas Englebart's new mouse and features a Graphical User Interface. Unfortunately, they see no future in the personal computer.

Alan Kay also develops a forerunner of the PC that he calls an "office computer".

A federal judges invalidates Eckert and Mauchly's ENIAC patent and recognizes John V. Atanasoff as the inventor of the modern electronic computer.

 

England and Norway make the first international connections to the ARPANET.

Bob Metcalfe, a Harvard University student, outlines the idea of Ethernet in his doctoral thesis.

   

1974

The Intel 8080 processor is introduced - it becomes the basis for the first personal computers

Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak start building computers in the Jobs' family garage.

An article in Radio Electronics provides plans for building a "personal minicomputer" called the Mark 8.

A chess-playing computer has its first match in Stockholm

 

Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Internetworking" which specified in detail the design of a

Transmission Control Program (TCP).

BBN opens Telenet, a commercial version of ARPANET

 

Gerald Ford is elected president

1975

Ed Roberts, considered the father of the personal computer, designs the Altair 8800. It is produced by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS). Introduced in Popular Electronics magazine as a kit for $397, it becomes an overnight success.

Two young hacker geeks, William Gates and Paul Allen offer to build a BASIC compiler for MITS. This is the start of what will become Microsoft

Two other young hacker geeks, Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniac build a computer in Steve's parents garage. They call it the Apple.

The first PC, the Altair 8800, is introduced in kit form and is featured in an article in Popular Electronics magazine. The response for orders is unexpectedly overwhelming.

The Zilog Z-80 computer is introduced. It has 8500 transistors and a clock speed of 2.5 MMz

MOS Technologies introduces the 6502 processor, selling for around $25. Jobs and Wozniak use it in the Apple II. It will later be used in the Commodore PET, Commodore 64 and early Atari computers.

IBM introduces the first laser printer

Fredrick Brooks publishes the theory that adding more people to a project which is late only makes it later.

The second personal computer, the IMSAI is introduced. Like the Altair, it lacks both keyboard and monitor and information is entered by switches. Unlike the Altair, it is targeted at businesses rather than hobbyists. The price for the kit is $450.

   

"Lite" beer is introduced

1976

The CRAY 1 supercomputer is introduced

 

The next entry into the personal computer market is the SOL, named after the Editor of Popular Electronics magazine.

Gary Killdall starts Digital Research and introduces the CP/M operating system.

IBM develops the ink jet printer.

Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak design and build the first Apple computers, the Apple 1, in the Jobs' family garage. It's not much more than a circuit board in a wooden box, but they build and sell 200 of them through Paul Terrell's Byte Shop. The price? $666.66

Stan Veit opens the Computer Mart of New York, the second computer store in the world.

 

UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX one year later.

Jobs and Wozniak start Apple Computer

Gary Killdall founds Digital Research

 

1977

The Apple II computer is introduced at a trade show

The TRS-80 and Commodore computers are introduced at the same show

The University of Wisconsin creates THEORYNET, a system which provided electronic mail to over 100 computer science researchers.

First fiber-optic telephone system is tested in Chicago

Bill Gates and Paul Allen found Microsoft in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

 

1978

The DEC VAX 11/780 computer is introduced

The concept of "office automation" is introduced with the WANG VS minicomputer system

Intel introduces the 8086 chip with 29,000 transistors. Shortly after, they introduce the 8088 chip

Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston write VisiCalc, the first electronic spreadsheet

The Wordstar word processing program is introduced for use on CP/M systems. It is later modified to run on DOS systems.

   

Halloween is released

1979

Don Bricklin and Bob Franston develop VisiCalc, the first electronic spreadsheet program.

Motorola introduces the 68000 chip which will be used in Macintosh computers

Cellular telephones are first tested in Japan and Chicago

USENET was established using UUCP between Duke University and the University of North Carolina by Tom Truscott and Steve Bellovin.

The first MUD (Multi-User Dungeon), MUD1,iss created by Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw at the University of Essex so that geeks and dweebs can play Dungeons and Dragons on networked computers.

ARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB)

SF-LOVERS mailing list is begun so that Sci-Fi fans can discuss imaginary topics of great significance.

 

Sony introduces the Walkman

1980

IBM hires Microsoft to develop an operating system for their proposed personal computer. Gates and company develop MS-DOS and take the first steps on their way to obscene riches.

By the end of the year, over 120,000 Apple computers have been sold.

The ADA programming language, named after Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace, is developed by the US Department of Defense.

Osborne introduces the first "portable" computer, the Osborne 1. It weighs 24 pounds and is the size of a suitcase.

The concept of a mailing list "digest" (a mailing list where messages are bundled together) was created.

Moderated mailing lists make their first appearance.

MUDs spread and become popular with college students, sci-fi fans and other geeks.

   

1981

IBM introduces their personal computer using an operating system developed by the fledgling Microsoft Corporation

The first successful portable computer, The Osborne 1, is introduced

The price of technology is dropping. 256k of RAM can be had for only $1100, and a 5 MB hard disk costs $3000. 300 MB hard disks start at about $15,000

Apple introduces the ill-fated Lisa computer which lists for nearly $10,000

Intel introduces the 80286 chip with six times the computing power of the 8086

Xerox introduces a commercial version of their experimental Alto computer. It is called the Xerox Star.

Computer chips are first installed in automobiles

BITNET, the "Because Its Time NETwork" is started as a cooperative network at the City University of New York, with first the connection to Yale. It provides electronic mail and listserv servers to distribute information. unlike USENET, where client s/w is needed, electronic mail is the only tool necessary.

CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) is built by UCAR and BBN with seed money from NSF to provide networking services, particularly email, to university scientists who have no access to ARPANET. CSNET later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network.

Minitel (Teletel) is deployed across France by French Telecom.

CPSR (Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility) founded by נננננננ at נננננננננ

CERN, the European equivalent of ARPA, makes its presense felt in the not-yet-born Internet

 

Raiders of the Lost Ark is released

First flight of the space shuttle Columbia

1982

Sony announces the Compact Disk

Mitchell Kapor designs Lotus 1-2-3

The first IBM PC "clone" is produced by Columbia Dara Products.

Compaq introduces its PC "clone"

John Warnock develops PostScript

Two Cray-1 computers are linked together in parallel and prove to be three times as fast as a single Cray-1. This new supercomputer is called the Cray X-MP.

DCA and ARPA establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET.- This leads to one of the first definitions of an "internet" as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP, and "Internet" as connected TCP/IP internets.

The Department of Defense declares TCP/IP suite to be the standard for DoD.

EUnet (European UNIX Network) is created by EUUG to provide email and USENET services.

Those dopey little smileys :-) are first used in emails.

Dots first appear in addresses, as in .arpa.

The % sign appears in addresses.

Commercial e-mail service begins

The AT&T telephone monopoly is broken

Mitchell Kapor starts Lotus Development

Osborne Computer goes out of business

John Warnock and Charles Geschke found Adobe Systems.

 

1983

Microsoft announces the Windows operating system, a poor imitation of Apple's graphical user interface. It will be two years before the public sees the actual product

The first "laptop" computer, the TRS-80 Model 100

IBM introduces the the PC/AT

Michael Dell begins building computers in his college dorm room.

The Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet program is released for the IBM PC

IBM introduces the PC-XT

Apple launches the ill-fated Lisa computer.

The switch from NCP to TCP/IP (1 January) marks the beginning of the global Internet.

 

The name server concept was developed at U of Wisconsin, so that users were no longer requiring to know the exact path to other systems.

 

CSNET / ARPANET gateway put in place

ARPANET is split into ARPANET and MILNET, which became integrated with the Defense Data Network created the previous year.

The standard practice of having a single, large time-sharing mainframe computer connected to the Internet at each site begins to change to the connection of an entire local network.

The Internet Activities Board (IAB) established, replacing the ICCB.

EARN (European Academic and Research Network) is established. Its operation is very similar to the way BITNET works.

FidoNet is developed by Tom Jennings.

The symbol > is first used to indicate quoted material being replied to in emails.

Phillipe Khan starts Borland Software

Hewlett-Packard begins selling the Laser-Jet printer

 

1984

Apple launches the Macintosh with a spectacular presentation at the 1984 Super Bowl games.

Apple introduces its MacPaint program.

Motorola introduces the 68020 chip for Apple computers. It features 250,000 transistors on a postage stamp sized chip.

Microsoft releases DOS 3.0

Commodore introduces the Amiga

Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) standards arte developed for interfacing computers with digital music synthesizers.

Sony and Phillips jointly introduce the CD-ROM

The movie The Last Starfighter is released. It uses graphics and images generated by a supercomputer.

Intel introduces its 16 bit 80286 chip which greatly expands the capabilities of PC's

Domain Name Server (DNS) is introduced.

The number of Internet of hosts breaks 1,000.

JUNET (Japan Unix Network) is established using UUCP.

JANET (Joint Academic Network) is established in the UK using the Coloured Book protocols (not to be confused with the protocols of Zion which is another matter entirely).

The Apple Macintosh computer makes its appearance.

Rot13, a simple replacement code is developed to shield sensitive or smutty material from over-the-shoulder prying eyes.

   

1985

Aldus introduces desktop publishing with its PageMaker software

Intel introduces the 80386 or "386" chip with over 250,000 transistors

Steve Jobs leaves Apple and starts NeXT Computer

Microsoft finally releases the Windows operating system.

Aldus releases Paul Brainard's Pagemaker, the first desktop publishing program.

Addresses ending in .com, .edu, .gov and .uk first appear.

   

1986

Compaq introduces the DeskPro 386, the first computer to use the 80386 chip

Microsoft introduces DOS 3.3

DESQView, TopView and GEM Desktop challenge Mr.Bill's Windows operating system

Sun introduces its first SPARC RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) CPU

 

Intel introduces the 80386 chip

NSFNET created

- NSF establishes 5 super-computing centers to provide high-computing power for all (JVNC@Princeton, PSC@Pittsburgh, SDSC@UCSD, NCSA@UIUC, Theory Center@Cornell).

The bungling bureaucracy of ARPANET prevents it from being used to interconnect centers. and the NSF creates NSFNET (with a then-unheard of backbone speed of 56Kbps) with the aid of NASA and DOE. As a result, there is an explosion of connections, especially from universities.

Cleveland Freenet (start of NPTN) comes on-line.

Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP.

Mail Exchanger (MX) records developed by Craig Partridge allowing non-IP network hosts to have domain addresses.

The WELL (Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link) an independent ISP is founded by Steward Brand of Whole Earth Catalog fame.

Addresses ending in .net appear.

The term "netiquette" first appears.

Burroughs and Sperry merge and form Unisys, the second largest computer manufacturer

 

1987

Adobe joins the destop publishing fray with Postscript

IBM introduces the OS/2 operating system

Microsoft ships Windows 2.0

 

NSF signs a cooperative agreement to manage the NSFNET backbone with Merit Network, Inc. (IBM and MCI involvement was through an agreement with Merit). Merit, IBM, and MCI later founded ANS.

UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access.

 

 

The number of Internet hosts breaks 10,000

The number of BITNET hosts breaks 1,000

Addresses ending in .org appear.

AT&T completes digitalization of its long-distance facilities

   

1988

The Year 2000 problem is first mentioned in print

PERL, a programming language is developed.

Steve Jobs introduces his new computer, the NeXTcube, with an object-oriented operating system

An Internet worm burrows through the Net, affecting about 6,000 of the 60,000 hosts on the Internet.

The DoD chooses to adopt OSI and sees use of TCP/IP as an interim. US Government OSI Profile (GOSIP) defines the set of protocols to be supported by Government purchased products.

Internet addresses ending in .ca (Canada) appear.

The Robert Tappan Morris Jr. releases a worm program on the Internet. It quickly infects much of the net and illustrates the need for greater network security.

   

1989

Intel introduces the 80486 chip, the first microprocessor with over 1,000,000 transistors and a built-in math coprocessor

Microsoft introduces Word for Windows

Seymour Cray begins to develop the Cray 3.

The number of Internet hosts breaks 100,000

The NSFNET backbone is upgraded to T1 (1.544Mbps)

RIPE (Reseaux IP Europeens) is formed by European ISPs to ensure the necessary administrative and technical coordination to allow the operation of the pan-European IP Network.

The first relays between commercial electronic mail carriers and the Internet are instigated: MCI Mail through the Corporation for the National Research Initiative (CNRI), and Compuserve through Ohio State University.

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) comes into existence under the IAB.

The Corporation for Research and Education Networking (CREN, not to be confused with CERN) is formed by the merge of CSNET into BITNET

The GIF graphics format (pronounced with a hard G, according to its creator, נננננננננננננ

IRC (Internet Relay Chat) appears.

ClariNet is developed by נננננננננננננננננננננ

The ISP world.std.com becomes the first ISP directly on the Internet.

Tim Berners-Lee, along with Robert Cailliau, propose the basic concept of the Web, using Ted Nelson's concept of hypertext.

Seymour Cray founds Cray Computer Corporation

Carnation introduces Coffeemate

1990

Microsoft ships Windows 3.0, a second-rate, Mac-lookalike operating system.

Bell Labs demonstrates the first all-optical processor

Hewlett-Packard and IBM announce RISC-based computers

Motorola releases the 68040 chip

Cray introduces the Cray Y-MP C90 with 16 processors and a speed of 16 gigaflops (love that word!)

Tim Berners-Lee creates HyperText Markup Language (HTML) at the CERN labs in Switzerland, and writes the prototype for the World Wide Web. It will use three of his creations: HTML, HTTP and URLs

Using the NeXT's object-oriented technology, the first Web server and client machines were developed at CERN in November, 1990, based on the Next's object-oriented technology.

ARPANET is decommissioned.

Electronic Frontier Foundation is founded by Mitchell Kapor.

Archie is released by Peter Deutsch, Alan Emtage, and Bill Heelan at McGill University.

Hytelnet is released by Peter Scott at the University of Saskatchewan.

Addresses ending in .arpa are phased out.

The word "newbie" enters the language.

The urban legend about a Chevy Impala with a JATO unit in Arizona makes its first appearance on the Internet. It will be repeated ad nauseam every few months for the rest of eternity.

The term "GUI" (Graphical User Interface) is first used.

 

Scott Adams comic strip. Dilbert, first appears

1991

Windows 3.1 appears. It is the first relatively stable Windows operating system

The JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) graphics compression format is released.

QuickTime, a video compression format developed by Apple, is released.

Apple, IBM and Motorola form an alliance to develop and promote the PowerPC platform.

Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX) Association, Inc. is formed by General Atomics (CERFnet), Performance Systems International, Inc. (PSInet), and UUNET Technologies, Inc. (AlterNet) (:glg:)

Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS), is invented by Brewster Kahle, and released by Thinking Machines Corporation

Gopher is released by Paul Lindner and Mark P. McCahill from the University of Minnesota.

The United States' High Performance Computing Act establishes the National Research and Education Network (NREN - not to be confused with CREN, which is not to be confused with CERN. Got it?)

The term cyber is first used as a prefix referring to the net is first used.

The first use of the word cyberspace in refence to the Internet, rather than something in science fiction.

Archie, a telnet data retrieval tool, is relesed

נננננננ Zimmerman creates PGP, his RSA-based encryption software. He publishes it for free on the Internet before repressive government forces can suppress it. He is arrested and charged with "exporting munitions". Ultimately he is acquitted

WAIS (נננננ)÷, a data retrieval tool, is released.

   

1992

There are now about 1000 known computer viruses, up from 5 in 1988

Linux, a new PC operating system created by

ננננננננננננננננ , is released. It is given away freely in the spirit of the early days of computing. It attracts a strong following of dedicated and devoted geeks.

 

DEC introduces the first 64 bit RISC Alpha chip

The World-Wide Web, one of the most significant advances in the development of the Internet, is released by CERN

The Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered

The number of Internet hosts breaks 1,000,000

NSFNETs backbone is upgraded to T3 (44.736Mbps)

First MBONE audio multicast takes place in March and is followed by the first video multicast in November.

IAB is reconstituted as the Internet Architecture Board and becomes part of the Internet Society

A lot of new words enter the vocabularies of the techno-hip and terminally aware in 1992:

"Web" (as in World-Wide)

"browser" (software)

http:// (URLs -- now seen in every magazine, TV show, and movie)

"firewall" (as a part of the net)

"home page"

"cypherpunk"

"WWW"

 

Gopher (a data retrieval tool)

POP (Point of Presence)

SLIP (the connection protocol)

MIME

14.4 kbps modems make their appearance and are initially priced in the $ננננ to $ננננ range.

The British ISP "Demon" is launched

anon.penet.fi, an anonymous server, is launched.

Project Gutenberg, a gargantuan effort to digitize all of the important works of literature, is launched.

PPP, a connection protocol, is released and given away without charge.

Veronica (a data retrieval tool)

Winsock

The email program, Eudora, is launched and quickly becomes the emailer of choice for savvy netizens (note how we slipped that new word in...)

 

   

1993

Apple, IBM and Motorola announce the availablillity of the Power PC

DEC introduces the Alpha AXP chip

Intel announces the Pentium chip which has 3.1 million transistors and is able to perform 112 million instructions per second (MIPS)

Laptop computers get CD-ROM drives

The MPEG (what the hell does it stand for?) video compression format is released. This makes it feasible to broadcast video on Web sites.

The first Geek Code is developed

The first version of the computer game DOOM is released upon an unsuspecting world of gamers. The world will never be the same again.

Apple introduces the Newton, the first successful Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). It's not so hot, but it's still better than anything else.

Mark Andrreessen and Eric Bina develop the Mosaic browser at NCSA (the National Center for Supercomputing Applications)

InterNIC is created by NSF to provide Internet registration services (Network Solutions Inc.), directory and database services (AT&T), and information services (General Atomics/CERFnet)

US White House comes on-line:

- President Bill Clinton: president@whitehouse.gov

- Vice-President Al Gore: vice-president@whitehouse.gov

- First Lady Hillary Clinton: root@whitehouse.gov

Internet Talk Radio begins broadcasting

The United Nations and the World Bank come on-line

US National Information Infrastructure Act is passed

Businesses and the media begin to take serious notice of the Internet.

New words for 1993:

"information highway"

"anon server", also "anonymous server"

"surf", in reference to Internet use.

"netizen"

"National Information Infrastructure", a high-sounding term for the Internet

"Internet Talk Radio"

"URL"

"cybersex"

Lynx, a fast, text-only browser, is released

 

Wired magazine is launched and graphic designers are appalled. Hype achieves new heights in cyberspace.

1994

IBM releases OS/2 Warp 3.0

Microsoft releases Windows 95

Netscape Navigator is released for public beta testing

"Shopping malls" make their inevitable appearance on the Internet.

The first online flower shop begins taking orders via the Internet

Mass marketing discovers mass emailing.

The first cyberstation, RT-FM, broadcasts from Interop in Las Vegas

The National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) suggests that GOSIP should incorporate TCP/IP and drop the "OSI-only" requirement.

The Arizona law firm of Canter & Siegel "spam" the Internet with email advertising green card lottery services.

WWW Worms (W4), Spiders, Wanderers, Crawlers, and Snakes begin to appear on the Intrernet.

Our new vocabulary for 1994:

"intranet"

"roadkill along the information superhighway"

"information supercollider"

"spam"

"search engine"

"web page"

"ISP" (they were formerly called Public Access Unix)

cgi-bin

 

The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) is founded by ננננננננננננננננננננ

28.8 kbps modems appear and make 14.4 kbps modems suddenly slow and old-fashioned.

The ISP, Mindspring, opens its cyberdoors for business.

CUSeeMe, a video conferencing protocol, makes live videoconferencing cheap and easy. Many people discover that they can have a wanking good time with cybersex.

Yahoo! launches

The "good times" e-mail virus hoax makes the first of its many rounds.

Marc Andreesen and Jim Clark found Netscape Communications

 

1995

Toy Story is the first full-length feature film to be completely computer generated.

Sun releases the Java programming language which makes platform-independent programming possible.

 

Intel introduces the Pentium Pro chip with 5.5 million transistors.

New words for '95:

 

"velveeta" (crossposting an article to too many newsgroups)

"shell account"

"applet"

Netscape releases Mozilla, a multipurpose, multimedia ננננננננננננננננננננננננננננננננ

The ill-advised, ill-conceived CDA (Communications Decency act), aka S.314, is passed. It is struck down a few months later, to the relief of those who believe in the First Amendment.

NetPhone (explain)

Lycos launches.

RealAudio, an audio compression and streaming format brings CD quality sound to the Web.

Java (explain)

DejaNews launches.

Frames make their appearance on Web sites, to the delight of designers and the dismay of those whose browsers won't recognize frames.

AltaVista launches.

   

1996

Microsoft introduces its lame version of a browser, Internet Explorer 3.0

DVD disks

New words for '96:

"infomercial stuporhighway"

33.6 kbps modems make internet access just a little faster (when lines aren't jammed and the connection holds)

In a move designed to insure that there is no market left untapped, Microsoft releases Internet Explorer, their version of a browser.

56 kbps modems appear, but not many people are buying because there are two standards and they usually don't work that fast anyway.

WebTV is the hot new buzzword.

PointCast begins its newsfeed and Push Technology is added to our vocabularies.

anon.penet.fi, the anonymous server, is shut down by the authorities for נננננננננננננננ

   

1997

Apple releases the Macintosh OS-8 system

CAUCE, an organization that works for the banning of commercial e-mail spam, is founded by ננננננננננננננננננננננננ

   

1998

Apple releases the iMac

 

Bill Gates has a little trouble with the Justice Department

 

1999

       

2000

As a result of a problem with computers' inability to expressi dates beyond 1999, the world is thrown into chaos and reverts to a primitive state reminiscent of Road Warrior